Analysis of the upstream industrial chain of the h

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Analysis of the upstream industrial chain of industrial robots in China's manufacturing industry

news: at present, China's manufacturing industry is ushering in a critical transformation period of high-end manufacturing. Industrial robots are of great significance to the transformation and upgrading of China's manufacturing industry and promote the rapid development of other industries

the industrial chain of industrial robots is divided into upstream, middle and downstream. The upstream is the core components of robots, such as reducers, servo systems, controllers. The technical barriers are high, accounting for the largest proportion of the cost of robots, about 65% - 75%; The midstream is the manufacturing of robot body, the supporting foundation and actuator of robot, and belongs to the heavy asset link; The downstream is the robot application link, mainly the system integrator carries out system integration and software secondary development according to different robot application scenarios. Although the yield is high, the technical content is low and the competition is fierce

among the three core parts of the robot, the reducer system accounts for about 30% - 40%, the servo system is about 20% - 30%, and the controller system is about 10% - 15%. Core components have always been a shackle to the development of Loctite adhesive robot industry, which can be activated by ultraviolet light. From the current situation, domestic enterprises have begun to march into this field, and in recent years, a number of enterprises with truly independent industries have been born

I. reducer

the reducer is installed in the joints of the robot to accurately control the action of the robot and transmit greater torque. Reducer is mainly divided into RV Reducer and harmonic reducer. RV Reducer is mainly used in joints with large load, and harmonic reducer is mainly configured with joints with low load. An industrial robot is usually equipped with multiple reducers. Among the three major components of industrial robots, the reducer is the most technically difficult and the industry is highly monopolized

rv reducer needs to bear large load and ensure high precision, so its technical difficulties mainly focus on industry and assembly: first, precision machining and assembly technology. RV Reducer has a high deceleration ratio, and has high requirements for special parts and tight assembly technology. Second, material forming technology. RV reduction gear needs to have wear resistance and high rigidity, which is difficult for material chemical element control and surface heat treatment

harmonic reducer is mainly composed of wave generator, flexible wheel and rigid wheel. The working principle is to make the flexible wheel produce controllable elastic deformation by relying on the wave generator, and the flexible wheel has n gear positions less than the steel wheel. Therefore, when the wave generator rotates one circle, the flexible wheel moves n gear positions, resulting in the so-called staggered tooth movement, thus realizing the motion transmission between the active wave generator and the flexible wheel. The harmonic reducer realizes the transmission through the elastic deformation of the flexible wheel, and its advantage is that the transmission ratio is large and the number of parts is small; Its disadvantage is that the return difference of elastic deformation is large, which will inevitably affect the dynamic characteristics and impact resistance of the robot

at present, the main suppliers of speed reducers are nabtesco and harmonicdrive in Japan, accounting for 75% of the global market share. Nabo Japan has a full range of products, which are widely used. The reducers of ABB, FANUC, KUKA, Yaskawa and other international mainstream robot manufacturers are provided by Nabo and hamenake

harmonic reducers have low technical requirements. Suzhou Lvdi and Zhongji Kemei have achieved mass production and applied to domestic robots. The reduction ratio range of domestic harmonic reducers is equivalent to that of Japan's harmonaco, but there is still a certain gap with foreign products in output torque and average life. RV Reducer requires high precision and large load. At present, China's Nantong zhenkang, zhongdalide and double ring drives have achieved mass production, which is equivalent to the output torque range of foreign RV reducers, but the transmission accuracy and torsional stiffness are insufficient, and the process level is still lagging behind foreign products

II. Servo motor

the servo system of industrial robot is composed of servo motor, servo driver and servo encoder, which are mainly used to drive the joints of robot. Each joint of industrial robot needs a servo motor to control speed and torque control and carry out accurate, fast and stable position control

the servo driver controls the speed, position and torque of the servo motor respectively through the speed loop, position loop and current loop, so as to achieve high-precision positioning of the transmission system. Servo encoder is installed at the end of servo motor to measure 4 It is a kind of sensor that pre adds the lower limit of experimental load, rotation angle and speed. At present, photoelectric encoder and magnetoelectric encoder are commonly used in the field of automatic control. As a signal feedback device that the servo system should move the ball carrier up and down, the encoder largely determines the accuracy of the servo system. As an actuator, the servo motor is used to convert the pulse signal of the servo controller into the angular displacement and angular speed of the motor rotation. It is mainly composed of stator and rotor. There are two windings on the stator, excitation winding and control winding. Its internal rotor is a permanent magnet or induction coil, and the rotor rotates under the action of the rotating magnetic field generated by the excitation winding

servo motors are widely used in all kinds of high-end mechanical equipment, and servo motors for robots account for only 9% of the industry. Therefore, many robot servo motor manufacturers are servo motor manufacturers that originally provided other fields. However, due to the particularity of the robot, the requirements for the fast response, high starting torque and wide speed regulation range of the servo motor are higher, and in order to adapt to the robot, it needs to be lighter

at present, Japanese and European and American servo motors account for 80% of the market share. In recent years, Chinese independent brands have gradually replaced imports, such as Huichuan technology and Easton

III. controller

the controller is mainly responsible for issuing and transmitting action instructions. The industrial machine has not yet formed a system level standardized product with international competitiveness. The motion position, posture and trajectory, operation sequence and action time of the human in the workspace

the controller is divided into hardware structure and software structure. In terms of hardware, the market has developed a hierarchical control system based on multiple CPUs. Taking the typical DSP controller as an example, the controller adopts the modular structure, takes the industrial PC as the hardware platform of the system, and realizes the control of multiple degrees of freedom of the robot through the DSP control card, which improves the motion control performance of the robot controller

in terms of software, it is divided into PC part of upper computer and motion control part of lower computer. Among them, the main function of the upper computer module is to set the adjustable parameters of the system, model and solve the forward and inverse kinematics of the robot, and logically connect the motion control card with the control program. The lower computer module is composed of main control program, motion program and communication program to realize high-speed servo interpolation operation and servo motion control

because the controller requires the algorithm to match the robot body, the larger robot body manufacturers in the world produce controllers by themselves. The market share of controllers produced by the four families of industrial robots is similar to that of the ontology industry, while most domestic ontology manufacturers do not have the ability to produce and develop controllers by themselves, and most of them adopt the method of external procurement of controllers

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